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General points
Powder skiing gives you a one-of-a-kind thrill. Most people, sadly, consider this discipline to be hard, if not impossible for them to master. Actually, powder skiing is fairly easy to master, but it goes against several fundamental alpine skiing techniques.
3-D Skiing and knowing how to float in powder snow
Unlike the on-piste skier who skis on a hard surface covered with snow, the powder skier has to move around in a fluid, sometimes heterogeneous, environment. Powder skiing is, like surfing, a 3-D discipline. Knowing how to float on the snow and therefore to control how deep the skier is in respect to the snow's surface is essential. It'll depend on various factors that range from the skier's weight and speed to the surface, the density of the snow and skis' inclination.
Ski a straight run, feet flat in the ski boots, skis parallel, and with your weight balanced on both legs. Try different types of slopes. On steeper slopes, you'll go faster and therefore won't ski as deep.
It's important to know that your float capacity, and therefore how easy it will be for you to ski in deep snow, depends on the type of skis you use. If you want to have fun in powder snow quickly, go for "fat skis", also known as "fat boys", which are very wide skis specifically made for this kind of skiing. Nonetheless, it's also perfectly possible to powder ski with regular skis. You'll simply have to ski a little faster (therefore on steeper slopes) to compensate for the soles' smaller surface.
Skiing with your weight equally balanced on both legs
We have talked a lot about leg independence as being one of the most fundamental alpine skiing basic techniques. In powder skiing, you have to do the complete opposite: the weight should be uniformly distributed on both skis. Why? Simply because both skis have the same float capacity and therefore each ski should have the same amount of the skier's weight over it. If you're not doing it right, you'll know immediately: one of the ski will sink down while the other will go up and bam! you 'll fall...
On a small slope, ski a straight run with your weight equally balanced on both skis, while going fast enough to feel your skis lift. Your feet should stay aligned.
Fore/aft balance
In powder skiing, your fore/aft balance is essential. If you're leaning too much backwards (leaning on the back of the shank of the boot), the skis lift which increases their float capacity (it allows them to not sink in the snow) but also decreases the ability to steer them. Many beginners make this mistake.

Losing your balance forwards occurs more rarely, as it quickly leads to you falling down. Snow accumulates on the skis and slows them down: the skier's inertia brings him down flat on his face.

The following stance is ideal: solid pressure of the shin on the tongue, knees flexed and pushed forwards, upper body leaning slightly forward, arms in front.

Turns: the upper body's and the pole plant's roles.
In powder snow, it is recommended that the upper body leans toward the inside of the turn fairly early in the turn. Using the pole for weight support is essential, even if this support is less marked than on packed snow.
On a small slope, skis parallel, going fairly fast, knees pushing forwards and weight distributed on both legs, plant your pole and lean your upper body towards the inside of the turn. Allow your skis to follow suit.
Turns: the flex/extension combo's role
You've probably already seen off-piste skiers bounce from side to side while performing short swing turns. Indeed, to turn in powder snow, you need to unweight your skis. In order to do so, a strong weight support is necessary. How does one achieve this in powder snow, do you ask? The technique is to relax your legs to pack the snow down beneath your skis (extension) and then let your knees pull up (flex) to turn your skis.
On a gentle to medium slope, weight evenly distributed on both feet, pack the snow down and then unweight your skis in a rhythmical manner.
What you should be feeling
Your upper body leaning towards the inside of the turn.

A solid pressure of your shins on the boot's tongue.

A evenly applied pressure on the entire surface of the boot's sole.

Knees "far away in front", i.e being the part of your body that is pushed the furthest forwards.

An evenly distributed weight on both skis, increasing during the extension phase (snow packing down).

A regular rhythm of flexes/ extensions which allow you to naturally link the turns.
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